Comparison of apicomplexan metabolism

Metabolic capability Pfa Tgo Nca Cmu Cpa Cho Bbov Tpa Ta
2-Methylcitrate cycle                  
Electron transport chain                  
Conventional Complex III/ Complex IV pathway                  
Alternative Oxidase                  
ATP synthase complex                  
Glutamine utilization and GABA shunt                  
Glyoxalase metabolism                  
Mannose and fructose metabolism                  
Fructose/Mannose to GDP-mannose conversion                  
GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose conversion                  
Mannitol dehydrogenase                  
Pentose phosphate cycle                  
Oxidative phase                  
PRPP generation                  
Erythrose-4-phosphate generation                  
Pyruvate metabolism                  
Pyruvate oxidation into acetyl-CoA                  
Apicoplast Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex                  
Euglena like Pyruvate dehydrogenase (NADP(+))                  
Anaplerotic reactions                  
Acetyl-CoA synthase and acetyltransferases                  
Acetate to ethanol conversions                  
Starch and glactose metabolism                  
Starch synthesis and hydrolysis                  
Galactose metabolism                  
Trehalose synthesis                  
UDP-xylose generation                  
TCA cycle                  
Alanine synthesis                  
Asparagine synthesis from aspartate                  
Glutamate metabolism                  
Glutamate to glutamine                  
Proline biosynthesis from glutamine                  
Glycine, serine and cysteine metabolism                  
Serine biosynthesis                  
Serine to glycine conversion                  
Glycine cleavage system                  
Serine to cysteine synthesis                  
Serine to glycerate interconversion                  
Cysteine to pyruvate conversion                  
Leucine, isoleucine and valine degradation                  
Part degradation                  
Complete degradation into propanoyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA                  
Lysine biosynthesis                  
Lysine metabolism                  
To 5'-aminopentanoate                  
To saccharopine                  
Methionine and Polyamine metabolism                  
Methionine metabolism                  
Ornithine to Polyamine synthesis                  
Polyamine salvage and reverse conversion                  
Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism                  
Synthesis of tyrosine and L-DOPA                  
Phenylalanine and tyrosine degradation                  
Arginine and proline metabolism                  
Proline metabolism to ornithine                  
Arginine conversion to ornithine                  
Proline hydroxylation                  
Selenocysteine biosynthesis                  
Threonine biosynthesis                  
Tryptophan synthesis from indole                  
Fatty acid biosynthesis in the apicoplast (FAS II)                  
Fatty acid elongation in cytosol (FAS I)                  
Fatty acid elongation in ER (Elongase pathway)                  
Fatty acid recycling and degradation                  
Isoprene biosynthesis                  
N-Glycan biosynthesis                  
Phosphatidylcholine metabolism                  
O-phosphoethanolamine to choline phosphate conversion                  
Choline to phosphatidylcholine synthesis                  
Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis                  
Choline to betaine conversion                  

Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine metabolism

Phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis from ethanolamine                  
Phosphatidylserine synthesis from phosphatidylethanolamine                  
Phosphatidylserine synthesis from CDP-diacylglycerol                  
Phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis                  
Cardiolipin synthesis                  
Sphingomyelin and ceramide metabolism                  
Ceramide biosynthesis                  
Sphingomyelin synthesis from ceramide                  
Glucosylceramide synthesis from ceramide                  
Sphingomyelin hydrolysis to ceramide                  
Purine metabolism                  
Adenosine salvage and metabolism                  
Salvage of inosine/ guanosine/ xanthine etc and HGXPRTase                  
Pyrimidine metabolism                  
Pyrimidine biosynthesis                  
Pyrimidine salvage                  
Folate metabolism                  
Folate biosynthesis                  
dTMP cycle and folate recycling                  
Molybdopterin synthesis                  
Biopterine synthesis                  
Lipoic acid metabolism                  
Lipoic acid synthesis in apicoplast                  
Lipoic acid salvage and lipoylation in mitochondria                  
Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism                  
NAD synthesis from nicotinate/nicotinamide                  
NAD phosphorylation to NADP                  
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis                  
Pantothenate synthesis from valine                  
CoA synthesis from pantothenate                  
Porphyrin metabolism                  
Porphyrin biosynthesis                  
Heme salvage and degradation                  
Pyridoxal phosphate metabolism                  
Pyridoxal synthesis                  
Pyridoxal salvage and phosphorylation                  
Riboflavin salvage and FAD synthesis                  
Shikimate biosynthesis                  
Thiamine metabolism                  
Thiamine biosynthesis                  
Thiamine salvage and pyrophosphorylation                  




  Shows the presence of the pathway/pathway branch in the organisms specified.



 Shows the absence of the pathway/pathway branch in the organisms specified.


The full names of the abbreviations used for the organisms above are given here. Pfa - Plasmodium falciparum, Tgo - Toxoplasma gondii, Nca - Neospora caninum, Cmu - Cryptosporidium muris, Cpa - Cryptosporidium parvum, Cho - Cryptosporidium hominis, Bbov - Babesia bovis, Tpa - Theileria parva & Ta - Theileria annulata.